Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) are a common mechanism for configuring authentication and authorization used by many UNIX programs and applications. If a program or application uses PAM for authentication and authorization, the rules for authenticating the user are configured in either the PAM configuration file, /etc/pam.conf or in application-specific files in the /etc/pam.d directory.
The Centrify Agent for *NIX includes its own Pluggable Authentication Module (pam_centrifydc) that enables any application that uses PAM, such as ftpd, telnetd, login, and Apache, to authenticate users through Active Directory. When you join a domain, the pam_centrifydc module is automatically placed first in the PAM stack in system‑auth, so that it takes precedence over other authentication modules.
The pam_centrifydc module is configured to work with adclient to provide a number of services, such as checking for password expiration, filtering for users and groups, and creating the local home directory and default user profile files for new users. The services provided through the pam_centrifydc module can be customized locally on a computer, modified through Active Directory group policy, or configured through a combination of local and Active Directory settings.
- Requests the PAM-enabled application to prompt for a password when appropriate and verifies whether the application‑provided user name and password are valid in Active Directory.
- Checks whether the user’s password has expired in Active Directory. If the password has expired, the pam_centrifydc module prompts the user to change the password, and forwards the new password to the adclient process, which communicates the change to Active Directory.
- Queries the adclient process to determine whether any access control policies are applied. For example, the pam_centrifydc module uses the information in the centrifydc.conf file to determine whether a local user attempting to log on is mapped to an Active Directory account, whether specific users or groups have been granted or denied permission to log on to the local computer, or whether Active Directory authentication should be ignored for a specific user or group.
- Creates the local home directory and default user profile files for new users. The pam_centrifydc module uses skeleton files to set up the user environment when new Active Directory users log on to a managed computer for the first time.
Most of these tasks are performed during a user login session as a series of requests and replies from the pam_centrifydc module to Active Directory through the adclient process for those programs and applications that are configured to use PAM. Because PAM is the most common authentication service used by UNIX programs and applications, the pam_centrifydc module is the most commonly used for a typical log-on session. For a more detailed description of a typical log-on process, see What happens during the typical log-on process.
Note: The order in which identity stores are listed in the nsswitch.conf file does not influence authentication. Authentication and authorization services are provided by Active Directory through the Centrify Agent for *NIX and its PAM component, and by default, Active Directory is always tried before any other sources. The order in which sources are checked is controlled through the PAM configuration settings, for example, the lines defined in the pam.conf file. In general, you should not modify the PAM configuration because making changes to these settings can compromise security or produce unexpected and undesirable results.